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Roses are a real decoration of any garden. In the middle zone, and even in the more southern regions of Russia, plants delight flower lovers with their beauty for a couple of months. However, there is a method that allows you to cut bouquets of charming flowers grown by your own hands all year round - growing this crop indoors. In addition to contemplating their beauty, florists have a chance to make money selling flowers in winter and spring.
Famous gardeners and amateurs, behind whom 6 acres of land and endless enthusiasm, have developed many methods of growing culture in a greenhouse. Their most effective tips and tricks are collected in this article.
Choosing a greenhouse and a set of additional equipment
First of all, it is important to choose the right home for the Queen of Flowers. It should be:
- Spacious enough and high (from the upper shoots to the ceiling - at least 2 m).
- Durable and resistant to temperature fluctuations from -40 to +100 degrees Celsius in order to withstand several seasons in a row and not collapse under the influence of weather-atmospheric and anthropogenic phenomena.
- Light, that is, equipped with transparent walls and a ceiling.
- Warm, or rather, well insulated from external atmospheric exposure.
- Comfortable for plants and the people serving them.
Perhaps such requirements are characteristic of polycarbonate - a relatively young material in the greenhouse construction market. The main advantage of this material is the ease of erection and assembly of structures from it. A characteristic property of polycarbonate is chemical inertness, as well as the absence of the need to build a capital foundation for construction.
In order to ensure normal conditions for plants, even a small greenhouse for year-round rose growing needs to be equipped with additional equipment:
- forced ventilation system with heating and / or cooling of the air brought into the greenhouse;
- system of watering and delivery to the roots and aerial parts of plants moisture and nutrients;
- a screening system for sunlight to increase the amount of natural light coming in in winter and limiting it in the summer;
- artificial lighting to create conditions as close to natural as possible, especially in winter;
- heating system of soil and air, which works exclusively in the cold season.
In addition to these complex mechanized or fully automatic devices and systems, growing roses in greenhouse conditions will require classic gardening tools, represented by hoes and cultivators, shovels, water containers, sprayers and watering cans. They are useful for daily care of plantings.
How to grow roses in a greenhouse
Rules and terms of planting seedlings
Plant roses in covered ground, especially if the greenhouse is heated, you can year-round. The exception is January and February: in these months, seedlings need a maximum of natural light, and the sun in the middle of winter is not bright enough.
Before planting, it is important to prepare the soil, the temperature of which at the time of planting should be at least 12 degrees. Rotted humus and manure, peat and superphosphate are introduced into the garden soil. This will be enough for the active formation of the shoots.
It is important to constantly moisten the prepared planting material before planting, so that even the tips of the shoots remain alive. They can also be buried in the soil, leaving a grafting site above its surface. Before planting, seedlings need to be soaked in well-maintained clean water and cut last year’s growthleaving about 20 cm above the vaccine. When planting, it is important to carefully monitor the depth of the landing hole.
Deeply planted roses begin to rot, and insufficiently deepened roses grow weak and may not take root. It is important to shed the soil well before planting so that the roots of young plants take root more quickly.
The density of planting roses in a greenhouse is slightly higher than in open ground, and is about 10 plants per square meter. It is important to take into account the varietal characteristics of plants planted in the greenhouse. If the bushes are expected to be large, it is better to plant them less often. As a rule, after the first year of cultivation, overgrown bushes can be thinned out.
The best varieties for the greenhouse
In the greenhouse culture, special attention is paid to the selection of rose varieties. If soil varieties are selected based on the size and color of the bud, then resistance to disease and lack of light and / or heat are considered the fundamental moment for greenhouses.
The following varieties of roses are considered the most suitable for growing in greenhouses:
|Grade name||Description||Grade Advantages|
|Queen Elizabeth (Grandiflora Group)||Erect bush up to one and a half meters high. The flowers are thick double, pink, with a faint aroma, with a diameter of about 10 cm.||Shade-tolerant and cold-resistant variety. It is stored for a long time in a cut.|
|Komsomolskiy light (Grandiflora group)||An even erect bush up to 1.2 m high. The flowers are red with a golden center, diameter up to 13 cm, velvety to the touch.||Hardy, plentiful and long flowering variety.|
|Niccolo Paganini (Floribunda band)||Beautiful foliage and an abundance of dark red buds make this variety very charming.||It keeps well in cut, blooms for a long time, is resistant to lack of light.|
|Carte Blanche (Floribund group)||A bush about 1 meter high, compact, completely covered with large and very fragrant white buds.||Resistant to most fungal diseases. Very long flowering even in open ground, right up to the first frosts.|
|Rose Gozhar (hybrid tea roses)||Tall bushes with large goblet, densely-colored flowers of carmine red color. The inside of the petals is almost white, which is why the flowers look very unusual.||Very high resistance to pests, diseases is affected only under adverse conditions (low temperature with high humidity and stagnation of air).|
|Little Flirt (hybrid variety)||Miniature roses with red and yellow buds. There is no aroma.||High resistance to lack of light and heat. The variety is bred specifically for the greenhouse.|
|Skarlet Gem (hybrid variety)||A compact bush dotted with miniature goblet inflorescences of red-orange color.||Greenhouse variety resistant to lack of light and heat.|
|Beauty Secret (hybrid variety)||A miniature cultivar with magnificent, thick double-headed goblet inflorescences with a diameter of not more than 5 cm.||The variety is intended for growing in a greenhouse. Resistance to diseases and pests is excellent.|
|Baccara (hybrid tea variety)||A compact bush up to 80 cm high. The flowers are goblet, double, with a diameter of up to 8 cm. The color of the petals is dark red, almost black.||High frost resistance, very plentiful flowering.|
|Casanova (hybrid tea variety)||Tall densely leafy bush. The flowers are pointed with a high center. The petals are thin, straw-colored with orange strokes at the base.||Repeated flowering after cutting. High ability to form new shoots.|
Optimal conditions for growing a crop in a greenhouse
At the initial stage, it is important for roses to provide high humidity. And it is not a matter of watering at all, but rather of humidification of air, since the roots immediately after planting cannot absorb enough water. It is necessary to spray plants in the greenhouse daily, and humidity should be at the level of 70%.
It does not tolerate rose and prolonged dimming. For normal growth of green mass and the formation of buds, lighting should be uniform and bright enough. Daylight hours must be at least 16 hours. In the autumn and winter periods in greenhouses include additional lighting with special fitolamps, and in summer they open the greenhouse to sunlight as much as possible. It is possible to maintain a microclimate suitable for roses only in the absence of drafts and maintaining a constant soil temperature of 12-15 degrees, and air - about 22 degrees above 0.
In the summer, the greenhouse must be shaded with special shutters or the lightest non-woven material. This will prevent burns on the leaf blades. Culture in general is extremely poor at leaf damage. This must be taken into account when caring for plants.
How to prune roses
Caring for greenhouse roses
Caring for roses in a greenhouse consists of regular watering and top dressing, removing weakened shoots and weeding. You need to water the plants daily, it is better to drip, so that moisture drops necessarily fall on the leaves. Once a month, watering is combined with top dressing. The following compounds are most suitable for this:
- fermented infusion of weeds with the addition of potash and phosphorus fertilizers;
- complex fertilizers for roses;
- fermented infusion of chicken manure;
- infusion of ash and manure.
Periodically, it is recommended to loosen the soil so that its surface is constantly fine-grained and allows air to pass through well. Otherwise, caked soil will contribute to the grinding of leaf blades, which will negatively affect the quantity and quality of flowers.
Cutting shoots is considered an equally important event. It performs several functions:
- lengthening the flowering period;
- improvement of the bush and its rejuvenation;
- proper bush formation.
For tea hybrid varieties and the Floribunda group, short or medium pruning is recommended, for the rest - moderate. In this case, you need only sharpened tools, and the last bud on the shoot should “look” in the opposite direction from the center of the bush. Anyway, the height of the cut shoots should be at least 30 cm, and the number of buds on them should be from 7 to 12, depending on the variety and group affiliation of the rose.
Dates and rules for cutting greenhouse roses
When growing roses in greenhouses, the risk of depletion of bushes increases significantly. Therefore, it is recommended to trim weaker lateral peduncles, leaving only the central ones. In this case, the buds are formed larger, and immediately after cutting them, the bush will be ready for repeated flowering.
There are several pruning rules:
- The buds are cut to their full bloom, when the petals are still tightly enough closed.
- During cutting, it is important to maintain maximum foliage, as this will not allow the bush to weaken.
- Immediately after cutting, the buds can be placed in the refrigerator at a temperature of about + 6-10 degrees for a maximum of 12 hours, after which they can withstand long-term transportation. A container with cool water, in which roses are immersed at about a third of their height, can serve as a replacement for the refrigerator.
In order not to infect the plant, secateurs or a garden knife must be treated with any disinfectant solution before cutting the buds. The tools should be sharp, without chipping or bending so that no burrs remain on the remains of the stems.
Diseases and pests of greenhouse roses
When grown in greenhouses, the set of diseases and pests in flowers does not differ much from those grown in open ground. Most often, plantings suffer from the following diseases and insects:
|Name of disease / pest||Signs of defeat||Control measures|
|Powdery mildew||Leaf blades curl and become covered with reddish spots. Later, all parts of the plant are covered with a characteristic whitish-gray bloom.||Processing Bordeaux mixture or antifungal drugs, pruning diseased parts.|
|Rust||Leaf blades are covered with yellowish-brown pads, after which the leaves fade and fall.||Trimming the affected organs of the plant, treatment with the Strobi preparation or Bordeaux mixture.|
|Gray rot||Browning of shoots and leaves, followed by the formation of gray fluff on them.||Processing Bordeaux liquid or potassium permanganate.|
|Black spotting||Black-spotted leaves dry out and fall away.||Treatment with the preparation "Strobi", fertilizing with potassium permanganate.|
|Tracheomycosis||Yellowing of leaves, darkening of blood vessels in stems, general wilting of plants.||Treatment with copper-containing preparations.|
|Pink aphids||The leaves curl, crumble, the bushes are often curved and greatly weakened. Larvae and adult aphids are located on the lower part of leaf blades.||Contact insecticides "Antio", "Karbofos" or "Rogor", kerosene, infusion of garlic or onions.|
|Pink cicadas||White transparent dots form on the leaves, the plant turns yellow and fades.||Insecticide treatment "Rogor", "Actellik" and "Karbofos".|
|Spider mite||Leaves are covered with small dots of yellow. The pest is located on the underside of the leaves.||Processing by Isofen, Acrex or Vermitek.|
|Leafworms and other caterpillars||The buds, and then the leaves look gnawed, sometimes covered with a cobweb and curled.||Pesticide treatment and manual collection of pests.|
To prevent the appearance and spread of any diseases and pests in the greenhouse, it is important to carefully look at the appearance of plants, especially those planted in the current season. Sometimes, to combat them, it is enough to destroy the damaged parts of the plants and once treat the bushes with preparations suitable for a particular case.
Greenhouses for roses
Growing roses in a greenhouse is not easy. However, with the appropriate application of forces and means, this can become a source of good income. In order for the plants to please the lush flowering and healthy appearance of the bushes, it is necessary to create suitable conditions for them and to detect pests and diseases in time.