We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Low fruit trees are especially in demand now. Cherry Saratovskaya Malyshka is a relatively new variety that does not differ in large growth. It is easy to care for and easy to pick, so yield losses are minimized. If we add to this the good taste of the fruits and early ripening, then the love for the Saratov Malyshka variety of gardeners, especially the owners of small plots, becomes clear.
Cherry Saratov Baby is often called simply Baby. This variety cannot be called the newest - it was created in 1995 by the Saratov Experimental Gardening Station. Authors - G.I.Dymnova, A.P. Kruglova and E.E. Kaverin. Saratov cherry variety Malyshka was obtained by crossing the Rannyaya griot and Duke 1-2-29.
Reference! Duke is a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry; the griot has a deep red color in the flesh, berry and juice.
Description of culture
Cherry-duke Baby has absorbed the best features of the parent varieties. It grows as a medium-sized tree with a dense spherical crown. And although you can't call the baby cherry a dwarf cherry - the height of the trunk reaches 2-2.5 m, it looks neat and compact.
Thick, smooth branches with brown bark are arcuate, bare with age. Numerous lenticels on the shoots are clearly visible, they are large, yellowish, with a white border. Large dark green leaves of Saratov Malyshka are obovate at the edges serrated, with a sharp tip and base. The plate is concave, the petiole is medium in size, red at the base.
The flowers are white, large, appear on the bouquet branches. Most often they are single or collected in 3 pieces. After ripening, a beautiful large cherry is formed. She in the Saratov Malyshka variety reaches an average of 5 g, but with good agricultural technology and favorable weather conditions, it can gain 7-8 g.
The appearance of the fruit is estimated at 5 points. One-dimensional berries of Saratov Malyshka are rounded, slightly flattened from the side of the stalk, with a slight depression. The top of the fruit is slightly flattened. The abdominal suture is moderately expressed, there are no subcutaneous points. The flesh, juice and surface of the cherry are dark red. The berry contains a lot of juice, its sweet and sour dessert taste is estimated at 4.4 points.
The stalk is securely attached to the branches. Fruit holding strength is average. The smooth egg-shaped bone separates well from the pulp, its weight is about 0.4 g.
The cherry-sweet cherry hybrid Malyshka is recommended for cultivation in the Lower Volga region. But due to its resistance to growing conditions and unfavorable weather factors, the variety is widespread in all Central regions of Russia.
The characteristics of Malyshka cherry varieties make it indispensable for small private gardens located in the central part of Russia. This cultivar has been cultivated in home gardens for over 20 years, and has earned excellent reviews.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
The drought resistance of the Saratovskaya Malyshka variety is good; an adult tree should be watered only in the absence of rain for a long time. In the Lower Volga region, this cherry has excellent cold resistance. Even in severe winters, neither wood nor flower buds freeze.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Cherry Saratov Baby in Central Russia blooms in mid-May. Harvesting begins on the twentieth of June. If the spring was late, flowering and fruiting are shifted to a later date.
The Malyshka variety is one of the earliest. But it should be remembered that this cherry is self-fertile. This means that without pollinators, it will give only 5% of the possible harvest. If you want to get a lot of berries, you should have other cherries with similar flowering times within a 40 m radius. The best pollinators for the Malyshka variety are Lyubskaya, Turgenevka, Nord Star.
Cherry Saratovskaya Malyshka grows quickly and begins to yield after planting for 3-4 years. When testing the variety, an average yield of 14.6 kg per adult tree was indicated. But with good care and favorable weather, this figure increases to 20-25 kg. Conditions also affect the size of the fruit. With an average of 5 g in a good year, one berry can weigh 7-8 g.
Scope of berries
Cherry Saratovskaya Malyshka - table variety. This means that it is primarily recommended for fresh consumption. The attractive large berries, obtained by crossing a duke with a griot, will decorate any table. From the cherries, Malyshka took an excellent sweet taste, from the griot - juicy red flesh.
This cherry is also good in blanks. First of all, juice and compotes are made from it - they have a good taste and attractive color. Other processed products include preserves and jams. Desserts with cherries Saratovskaya Malyshka are especially good.
Due to its firm pulp, good taste and high transportability, this variety can be used as a commercial variety.
Disease and pest resistance
Variety Saratovskaya Malyshka is moderately resistant to typical diseases and pests of cherries. Coccomycosis and moniliosis are strongly affected only in the years of epizootics.
Reference! Epizootic is a widespread occurrence of one or another infection. For the plant world, this is the same as an epidemic for humans.
Thanks to its compact dense crown, the Malyshka cherry suffers little from birds.
Advantages and disadvantages
The Saratovskaya Malyshka variety showed itself best when grown in the Lower Volga and Central regions. In other regions, it is also planted, but there it gives a lower yield and is more often sick. The advantages of the Baby include:
- High productivity.
- Good drought tolerance.
- Attractive appearance and good taste of berries.
- High frost resistance of the stem, flower buds and wood.
- Early ripening.
- The versatility of the use of fruits.
- Good transportability of berries.
- Compact size for easy harvesting.
The disadvantages of Saratov Baby are:
- Insufficiently strong attachment of berries to the stalk.
- In the northern regions, cherries may freeze slightly. In particular, early blooming flowers can fall under recurrent frosts.
- Insufficient resistance (medium) to coccomycosis.
- Self-infertility of the variety.
Cherry Saratovskaya Malyshka does not make any special requirements different from other varieties. The main thing here is to observe the rules for planting and placing a seedling on the site.
It is better to plant cherries "Baby" in early spring, before bud break. This is especially important for this variety, as it blooms already in mid-May. So it is recommended to prepare the planting holes in the fall. If the seedling was bought at the end of the year, it is recommended to dig it in on the site, and in the spring to transfer it to a permanent place.
In the southern regions, it is better to plant cherries after leaf fall. Later onset of frost will allow the plant to take root before the onset of cold weather. In addition, in the south, spring has recently been quickly replaced by heat - the seedling will suffer from the heat if it is placed on the site in spring.
Choosing the right place
The best place for cherries would be a sunny place on a small hill with a gentle slope. If strong winds blow in the region, the crop should be planted under the protection of other trees or buildings. The main thing is that the cherry has enough sunlight. Groundwater should be at least 2 m to the surface.
The soil needs a neutral, loose, with a lot of organic matter. Sour soil should be improved with dolomite flour, chalk or lime. Dense soils are made permeable, bringing in sand and a large amount of humus.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherries
Since Malyshka is self-fertile, the best neighbors for her will be pollinating cherries of the varieties Lyubskaya, Nord Star or Turgenevka. You can plant other stone fruits nearby. Cherry does not like the neighborhood of walnut, oak, maple, birch.
The close location of beds with nightshade crops - potatoes, tomatoes, peppers will increase the likelihood of infection of the Baby with fungal diseases. With raspberries, sea buckthorn and other shrubs with rapidly expanding roots, cherries will compete for moisture and nutrition.
After the culture is well rooted and begins to produce a crop, the near-stem circle can be planted with small ground cover plants. They will retain moisture and protect the cherry root from overheating in the hot summer.
Selection and preparation of planting material
The demand for undersized cherries is great. Therefore, it is best to buy Saratov Malyshka directly from a nursery or a reliable garden center that values its reputation.
When choosing a seedling, you need to pay attention:
- on the root system: it must be well developed and intact;
- to the height of the trunk - optimal for annual cherries - 80-90 cm, two-year-olds - no more than 110 cm;
- the bark of the Saratov Malyshka should be brown and smooth, the twigs - elastic.
Container plants need to be watered before planting, and cherries with an open root system should be soaked for at least 3 hours.
The landing pit must be prepared in advance. Standard size: width - about 80 cm, depth - not less than 40 cm. When digging a hole, the upper, fertile layer of earth is set aside and mixed with a bucket of humus, potash and phosphorus fertilizers (50 g each). If necessary, add sand and a soil deoxidizer (lime, dolomite flour). Then they act according to the following scheme:
- A sturdy peg is driven in a little to the side of the center of the pit.
- A cherry sapling is placed in the middle.
- The root is gradually covered with fertile soil, constantly compacting it.
- The stem is tied to a peg.
- The root collar is left to rise 5-8 cm above the soil surface.
- An earthen roller is poured around the trunk circle.
- A young tree is watered with 2-3 buckets of water.
Follow-up care of the culture
In the first season after planting cherries, you need to water it regularly, loosen the tree trunk circle and weed out weeds. When the tree takes root, the soil is moistened only with a prolonged absence of precipitation. In the fall, be sure to do moisture charging.
Loosening of the soil under the cherries is necessary only in the first years. Then the near-trunk circle is filled with ground cover growing in the region that can endure shade.
The best food for cherries is cow dung and ash. They are brought under the root in the fall. If you use mineral fertilizers, you need to remember that the culture needs a lot of nitrogen and potassium, but phosphorus should be limited (but not completely excluded).
Cherries need to be pruned regularly. This will avoid many diseases and increase the yield. Variety Saratovskaya Malyshka tends to expose old branches. Pruning contributes to the development of new shoots and the formation of a large number of bouquet branches, on which cherries are formed.
For the winter, there is no need to cover this cherry in the regions recommended for cultivation. Culture is saved from hares and other rodents by wrapping the stem with spruce branches or burlap, or by installing a protective mesh.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Variety Saratovskaya Malyshka is moderately resistant to fungal diseases. This cherry suffers from them only in the years of epizootics. Prevention and control measures for the most common are shown in the table. The rest of the diseases will be discussed in another article.
First, dark spots appear on the leaves, then they turn into holes. A plaque forms on the reverse. In the middle of the season, diseased leaves will fall off. Brown spots with a whitish bloom appear on the fruits.
Treatment with appropriate fungicides according to the instructions. Good results are obtained by spraying with preparations containing copper
Regular pruning to avoid thickening of the crown and spread of disease. Preventive spraying with copper-containing preparations on a green cone and iron vitriol after leaf fall. In autumn, all plant residues are collected under the tree and burned
The tree appears to have been affected by the heat. First, leaves, flowers or berries die, then whole branches die.
Sick vegetative organs are removed, capturing about 10 cm of healthy tissue. The wound surface is first treated with a copper-containing preparation, then with garden varnish. The tree is sprayed with the appropriate fungicide
As for coccomycosis
Variety Saratovskaya Malyshka combined the genes of cherry and sweet cherry. Of the pests, it is most often affected by aphids. If there are few insects, they fight with them with folk remedies, for example, a solution of laundry soap. In case of severe damage, cherries are treated with insecticides.
General prophylaxis against pests is the same as for coccomycosis. In the spring, 10 days after treatment with a copper-containing preparation, spraying with a systemic insecticide is carried out.
Harvesting and processing
It must be remembered that cherries do not ripen during storage. In relation to this culture, the term "technical ripeness" has no meaning. If the berries are to be transported, the harvest must not be delayed.
Cherries should be picked immediately after they are ripe. Otherwise, it will become a prey for birds, and the berries of the Saratovskaya Malyshka variety may fall to the ground, since their attachment to the stalk is average. In addition, it is in overripe fruits that all sorts of larvae and small caterpillars like to settle.
The sooner you process the crop, the more nutrients it will retain. Fresh Malyshka cherries can be stored in the refrigerator for 6-7 days.
Cherry Saratov Malyshka is a beautiful compact tree. Its fruits ripen early, have good taste and attractive appearance. The variety is great for growing in small areas.
Egor Pavlovich Bertsevich, 62 years old, Kamyshin
I have a small dacha, only one cherry grows - Saratov Malyshka. She is pollinated by neighboring trees. What varieties are there - I don't know, but my cherry gives an excellent harvest. We collect more buckets of berries every year. We eat them fresh - the taste is just great. We do not like jams, but we drink compotes with pleasure in winter. The drink turns out to be good both from one Baby, and if you add other berries.
Ekaterina Semyonovna Semkina, 48 years old, Uryupinsk
I am an urban person, I don't even have a summer residence, but my old friend recently moved out of town. There she has a large garden, there are several cherries. As soon as they start to ripen, the friend generously shares the harvest. When my husband and I tried the Saratovskaya Malyshka cherry for the first time, we thought it was a cherry. Very tasty berries. We like them more than other varieties.