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A mooring is an equipped facility for mooring floating equipment for various purposes. When the first moorings appeared, it is not entirely clear: for a long time they were adjacent to unequipped berths, if the boat can be pulled ashore by hand. Most likely, they began to be erected in those cases when the ships had weight and cargo, as well as with an unstable coastline: for example, if there are tides or seasonal fluctuations in the area (floods, monsoons).
Berthing facilities are divided into freight and passenger, and the first, in turn, are divided by the type of cargo that they accept. By their design, the berths can be divided into:
Quays are arranged along the coastline and are its continuation. If the embankment is a stone or reinforced concrete wall vertically descending into the water, then such a structure is called a mooring wall. When the promenade has a remote platform on stilts, they talk about a pier with a rim.
Pier pier represents an overpass or wall stretched into the water area.
Raid berths are carried to the water area and connected to the coast either by a bridge (passenger) or by a pipeline (for tankers).
According to the construction technology, such structures can be stationary and floating (pontoon). Stationary berth - This is, to one degree or another, a capital structure fixed on the ground. In turn, they are gravitational, in the form of solid walls, and trestle (on piles). Floating berths are held on water due to the law of Archimedes. A special case of such a pier is a landing stage.
Moorings should be equipped with devices for safe mooring. They are called mooring cannons - it is for them, with the help of the mooring ends of the vessel, that they are attached to the pier or embankment. To protect the hull of the vessel from damage when mooring from the outside, fenders or berth bumpers are attached to the berth. It can be garbage bags, old tires or specially made rubber products. Sometimes the ship itself is equipped with them.
The choice of type and design of the berth during construction depends on:
- type and characteristics of ships (weight, displacement, purpose);
- coastline features;
- the nature of the bottom of the reservoir;
- depths and their differences.
The construction of berths is usually carried out by specialized organizations of a bridge-building profile, and this is done together with the construction of the port, because the berthing itself is closely connected with the terminal to which it belongs.
But there are options for self-construction of the pier. You have to agree that few ordinary citizens would come up with the idea of unloading container ships at their summer cottage and doing ship repair work. Not every river has cruise ships or even simple motor ships. The maximum that may interest a person living near a lake or river is where to put his boat. Therefore, the topic of this review is the construction of a pier for small vessels.
The legal side of the issue
Of course, if you live in the wilderness, where the official was last seen on TV last year (if you have one), and the nearest policeman lives fifty kilometers away from you, you can safely put up the bridges, and no one will notice.
But if you want the authorities to have no complaints against you, then it is better to formalize the berth by law.
Recall that 20 meters from the upper edge of the water of the reservoir are considered state property, and you cannot redeem them, enclose them and in any way prevent people from walking freely there. But you can even use a pond. To begin with, you can take water there absolutely free of charge: only those who use water for commercial purposes should pay for it. And you can also build a pier.
But what documents are needed for thisdepends on whether the berth is stationary, temporary, capital or floating. But in any case, you will need to conclude a water use agreement. You can find out how to do this at the executive authorities in your region, and now such a service can be provided through the MFC network. Such an agreement would be sufficient for the pontoon pier.
For construction, you will need to conclude a lease for a coastal site, and if you want to put a capital structure on concrete piles, then collecting documents and obtaining a building permit will be equivalent to building a port (with an official project). The scale is not the same, but the law is the law. Therefore, if you do not want to bear all these expenses (and they will be at least because you will go with paperwork during working hours), better agree with your neighbors and make a public marina (so you can still throw paper-collecting work into the municipality). Conveniently, and everyone will be able to use.
Recall also that this procedure does not apply to the territories of national parks, reserves and other protected areas. The construction of the pier there (if you are lucky to live there) is governed by the documents of such a territory itself. Sometimes you can’t even make simple walkways.
Moorings for boats and their construction
Before choosing the type of berth you need, examine the conditions in which he will stand. First of all, it is the water level, bottom topography and seasonal changes in these parameters. So, if you have a shore with a good slope, and small changes in the water level in high water, you can build a mooring wall with removal on piles - and not far, and the depth will be quite sufficient not only for the boat, but also for larger vessels. But, unfortunately, such conditions are far from everywhere.
Usually, our citizens live on gentle shores, where the bottom is silty and overgrown with grass. Entering such a reservoir is usually not comfortable, even if you are going to just swim. There’s no need to talk about the boat. And in such cases, the pier is built in the form of a pier.
As for the geometry of the latter, it can be installed perpendicular to the shore, if we are talking about the lake. If you have a river with a stream, then it is better to build it at an angle in the direction of the stream.
Piles and their varieties
Piles have long been used as grounds for structures on unstable soils and in coastal areas.
They are rods buried in the ground. Piles work according to two principles: friction and support on deep-lying dense layers. Sometimes they use one of their functions, sometimes both. The latter is often used in the construction of heavy buildings - in this case, the piles are driven twice: the second time they are finished until a dense layer is reached (when they are reached, this can be determined by vibration in the entire microdistrict).
Piles are made of different materials.. Once they were only wooden (larch and oak were used), then the era of concrete came. Concrete piles are produced in the form of rods 6, 9, 12 meters long and are driven into the ground with the help of a crawler-mounted pile driver. Longer piles are stuffed in place: they drill a well, insert reinforcement into it and fill it with concrete. Such piles are called bored. There are also piles in the form of steel pipes and complex - concrete in the pipe.
Recently, screw piles, widely used in private housing construction and for the construction of small facilities, including marinas, have also gained popularity. Screw piles are wrapped in soil either using special equipment or manually using a lever. Three people are enough to twist one pile - one of them must control the verticality of the screwing.
Construction of a stationary pier on stilts
I would like to remind you that pile foundations, although they have proven themselves well, they are not suitable in cases where you have a rocky bottom in a pond. But more on that in the next chapter.
But you, most likely, the bottom is sand or silt.
The diameter of the screw piles and their number for the house is calculated based on the weight of the building. Since we are dealing not with a house, but with a relatively light construction, the weight will not be of such importance. But the choice will be influenced by factors such as ice and the nature of the bottom. So, thick ice is able to break your piles in the coming spring, which is impossible during the construction of a house. Therefore, it is better to choose piles from 108 mm, and after installation it will be better to pour concrete inside.
The length of the piles is determined by the depth of the carrier layer and the water level, taking into account the difference in your body of water. So, sludge is not a good support for the pile, since it is subject to seasonal movements and the influence of the flow in the river: the larger it is, the stronger the displacement of the pile will be. The pile should go into the retaining layer to a sufficient depth. For sand, it is 0.5 m, and for clay - 1 m.
For example, the following case.
The height from the top of the pile to the maximum edge of the water is 0.3 m. The distance from the mirror to the bottom is 1.7 m. The thickness of the silt is 1 m. The bottom is sand. Thus, the length of the pile is obtained: 0.3 + 1.7 + 1 + 0.5 = 3.5 m. By the way, there is such a size on sale. But, taking into account the flow and ice melting, it is better to give a margin of safety and deepen them by another half meter. And buy piles, respectively, 4 meters. If you are building a pier, the length of the piles will be different, depending on the change in depth. On sale piles are up to 9 meters.
Each pile of diameter 108 is designed for a decent load - 7 tons. On the pier, this does not happen. Therefore, count the number of piles based on the depth of a particular section of the pier. On the shore, a distance between piles and 2 meters is allowed, but the farther from the shore, the more they should be twisted. The maximum pitch of the pile is 1 m, the minimum is 0.5 m.
It is best to carry out work on rolling piles in winter: ice will serve you as a good support.
Harness and flooring
For tying piles, the channel is most often used. It is selected from the assortment based on geometric characteristics. If we have a pile diameter of 108 mm, then channel No. 14 and 14P will suit us. At the corners, they can be joined by a weld, cutting each 45 degrees. The joints between the channels should be on the pile, and not hang in the air. Piles can be fastened both by welding and by means of threaded joints.
Before finally mounting the channel trim, it should be primed: this will protect it from rust.
If you want to make a harness from a bar, then at the corners it connects to a spike, and the joints should also be on piles. It is necessary to lay waterproofing under the beam, and carefully treat the wooden structure itself with special compounds so that it does not rot.
Logs are mounted on top of the harness and flooring on top.
Logs need to be processed in the same way, but it is better to approach the flooring carefully. He will constantly experience the vagaries of weather and various loads. Therefore, if you do not want to redo it often, get a deck board from larch. If you use a more budgetary pine or spruce, then at least treat it properly - impregnation and varnish are quite suitable.
There are situations when the installation of the pier on piles is either impractical or impossible. Here are a few such cases:
- you have a rocky bottom in a pond;
- the difference in water reaches such a value that it becomes a problem - the staircase down goes too high;
- you are "lucky" to live on the shores of a lake or the sea, where, by a "happy" accident, hummocks blow in the spring;
- the height of the sludge at the bottom is such that piles become an expensive pleasure.
The way out in this situation can be a capital structure with ice cutters, on a buried foundation, with a large volume of excavation - in the end, ports and bridges are somehow built. The whole question is whether this is necessary in cases where you only need to moor your boat, throw spinning and swim.
And here pontoons come to the rescue.
In fact, these are non-self-propelled vessels, that is, they are kept on the surface due to their buoyancy. They are spread not only as berths for small boats: in many cities, ships and even small cargo ships moor to such structures. Often the river station itself is at the landing stage.
When the floating berth is large, it is carried out on a concrete or steel base, which is a flat box with voids inside, which ensures buoyancy. The base of the small one is made of plastic (there are modular plastic pontoons on sale), and moorings on empty metal barrels are common as home-made options.
The simplest pontoon It is a square with sides of 2.5 meters to 4 barrels. For manufacturing, we need 4 empty barrels of 200 liters, 10 meters of timber with a side of 100 mm, 25 meters of timber of 50 mm each, a durable waterproof rope and screws.
From a large beam you need to twist a square. Inside we put a frame of timber of 50 mm to hold the barrels. Barrels must be thoroughly cleaned, sealed with sealant and painted well. If the barrels are plastic, this is not required. After that, we insert the barrels into the frame at the corners and fasten the rope in three places each. We fix the rope on a large beam, tightening it well. After that, the future pontoon can be turned over and stuffed on the boardwalk.
If desired, the pontoon on the barrels can be made large, and irregular in shape, and with a railing. Instead of barrels, a plastic pipe of large diameter is a good fit, if you have something to solder the ends of.
In general, the construction of such berths limited only by your imagination.
The approach to the pier can be made in the form of a movable gangway, one end of which is not rigidly fixed on the shore, and the second “walks” along with the pontoon, more precisely, with the water level in the reservoir.
Important! In order for your marina to stand where necessary, it must be anchored. How many anchors you will need depends on the weight and area of your pontoon, but not less than two. The length of the anchor chains can be adjusted.Berth construction