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The fencing of the site, in addition to protecting the territory from outsiders, can also serve as a decorative element, if installation is carried out correctly, the fencing device is related to the landscape design. By the fence, the house is remembered first. Installation of the fence usually takes a lot of time, so I want to achieve the maximum quality of the structure so that it lasts as long as possible. Columns are load-bearing structures, so you need to dig them into the ground at a well-defined depth, the longevity of the fence will largely depend on this.
Methods of making fences are different, as are the materials of manufacture: corrugated board, plastic fence, for example. You choosewhat to do. Here we’ll talk about how to dig or hammer pipes for a fence.
Traditional material. Today, wood products of proper quality are quite expensive. They are made from solid hardwood logs.
Best resist negative environmental effects (temperature, humidity, mold):
They are followed by spruce and fir. You can not make pillars of birch, maple, linden, aspen, alder and beech. To increase the service life, it is necessary to treat with antiseptic preparations and firing to a state of carbonization.
Usually wooden poles are dug upwhen the pillars are made of wooden planks.
Metal pillars are very widely used. A frequent solution is a wooden fence on metal poles. But a combination with a wooden fence, chain-link, metal profile is successful. This support can withstand severe stress. Metal is more durable than wood, although rust pre-treatment is required. In order to extend the term In operation, the paint layer is updated annually.
There are options from:
- hollow welded pipes;
- metal profile of square section.
Strict requirements are imposed on the diameter and thickness of the metal, since practicality and reliability must be ensured. Optimum Ø = 6 cm, if the wall thickness is from 2 mm. Fastening the lag and other elements of the fence to the support is simple and quick.
Concrete and asbestos cement pillars
Self-made concrete pillars for the fence are durable, but have a number of disadvantages. Asbestos-cement columns are inconvenient during installation and are not combined with every material, they are prone to rupture due to freezing water inside. Mainly concrete pillars for powerful colorful railing.
They are difficult to install, highly decorative. Only experienced specialists can bury such supports, which is why the construction of the fence is much more expensive. Before installation, a foundation is equipped that will absorb all the load from heavy supports. The correctness of the installation largely determines the durability. If the pillars are warped, reconstruction of the fence is required.
To recapture the perimeter of the site, it is recommended to use columns of approximately 15 cm in diameter, approximately 10 cm will be enough for intermediate supports. The tree needs to be dried and pretreated with a solution of copper sulfate or an antiseptic drug to destroy microorganisms. The lower ends are smeared, turn into roofing material.
Oil painting provides better moisture protection. When installing, the top of the former tree should be at the bottom. Thanks to this technique, water will not rise up through the capillaries and accumulate in the column.
The wooden support is mainly used for lightweight structures, and fixing it can be quite simple. A pit is made with a drill with a depth of about 0.5 m and with a height of the aerial part of the support up to 1.5 m. With an increase in the height of the fence, the embedment depth increases. The buried part should be 1/3 of the length of the column.
The diameter of the pit should be twice the diameter of the column. The drill is held vertically so that the hole is smooth. The bottom is covered with a layer of rubble or expanded clay for drainage of rainwater. The column should be placed vertically (check the vertical level). From the sides, fill up with broken brick or rubble. As you fall asleep, periodic scrap compaction is performed. After each such approach, the position of the support is checked.
To ensure the durability of the fence, a wooden pole can be mounted in a metal sleeve - a casing for the buried part. The sleeve must pass closely with the tree, without the possibility of penetration into the water gap. For this purpose, clogging is done in metal cylinders, whose diameter is slightly smaller than that of the column.
How to install pipe posts
The strength of metal supports is such that they withstand the weight of even heavy structures and significant wind loads (fencing from corrugated board). Rigid fixation is required. Installation of metal supports is carried out by concreting and driving.
Concrete can be in two ways:
- The first involves digging a hole whose diameter is slightly larger than that of the support. It is required to concrete the space between the vertically mounted column and the ground.
- The second method involves filling the hole with a solution of concrete, followed by installation of the column. So fixing will be better.
Concreting is resorted to while working on sandy soils with good throughput and prone to bulging.
It’s easier and more reliable to drive a support with a sledgehammer, although skill and physical effort are required here. The column is driven into a hole of a smaller diameter so that it fits snugly to the ground. This method is suitable for lightweight constructions, and they resort to it when working on heavy dense soils. A positive point in the simplicity of the reconstruction of the fence when the skew is to strengthen it - alignment is also done with a sledgehammer, no adaptation will be needed.
If the piles have a spiral at the end, they are screwed into the soil and provide sufficient compaction.
Installation of asbestos-cement supports
More often used poles with a diameter of about 12 cm. The product made of asbestos cement is not considered durable, therefore, it can be used only for lightweight structures. Proper installation will ensure a life of more than 50 years.
With a pit drill, if the height of the support is more than 2 m, they are made approximately 80 cm deep, an extension is made below, which is poured with concrete. The walls are reinforced with a ruberoid pipe, which should protrude 15 cm. A wooden formwork is made around this protruding part. The pit is not completely filled with concrete. While the solution has not yet solidified, an iron rod or pin is inserted, whose length is slightly less than that of the column itself.
- When the rod is seized with mortar, the support is put on and the remaining space is poured with concrete to the edge of the formwork.
- The design does not come into contact with the ground and is firmly fixed.
- In order to protect it from tearing due to freezing water, the cavity of the supports is poured up to the top with concrete, forming a cap that prevents water accumulation.
A method similar to the installation of metal pipes is also possible, but it is permissible only for sandy soils.
Installation of brick supports
Here it all starts with the installation of the strip foundation: beaten brick is laid in the trench and concreted.
- At the site of the future support, a strong reinforcement is mounted with several metal rods, which will become the frame. Wide pipes can be used.
- The top of the foundation is covered with waterproofing material.
- Before laying, the correct layout is checked. The evenness of the first row is checked by level.
- Bricks are laid out around the frame, and the resulting cavity is filled with concrete.
The installation of brick supports requires skill, therefore it is rarely performed without specialists.
Closely ground with close groundwater
Foamy soil is dangerous for its ability to push both poles and poured concrete to the surface. After 2−3 years, the fence may be slanted. Due to the close occurrence of groundwater, corrosion and rotting increase, changes occur in the upper layer.
In such cases, more time-consuming, but also more reliable methods of mounting poles are used. There are recommendations for increasing the depth of pits below groundwater. This entails an overrun of the solution and does not always justify itself.
The following method is more effective: crushed stone or expanded clay is laid on the bottom of the well with a 20-cm layer. After mounting the support, the space is also filled with crushed stone 15 cm to the soil level. The 15 remaining centimeters are poured with concrete. A layer of crushed stone provides drainage and does not impede the flow of water. A concreted top guarantees a firm hold for the support. Many builders in such cases refuse concrete.
General installation steps
It is worth remembering several important rules:
- After selecting the material of the supports and the method of installation, tools are prepared. Must be present: garden drill, shovel, cord, scrap, drainage material and construction level. You may need: ruberoid, sledgehammer, cement and a container for the preparation of the solution.
- Planning and layout of the site. In place of future posts, pegs are driven along the perimeter along which the twine is pulled. Each peg should be opposite the neighboring one. In the corners, it is planned to arrange columns of larger diameter for high load. It is recommended that the section length be equal to the distance between the two columns, but not exceed 3 m. If we are talking about a heavy construction, the minimum distance is reduced to 2.5 m to avoid sagging.
- After mounting the first corner pillar, set the second corner, leveling its height relative to the first hydraulic level. Between the two supports pull two cords at the bottom and at the top, which will serve as markers for the installation of intermediate supports.
- With a serious height difference (more than 25 cm), it is planned to install additional columns and a device for step fence. Auxiliary supports are mounted with greater strength where gates and car gates are located.
- When fixing the column, its position is checked by the vertical level. It is important that the height of the pillars is the same, and they stand straight. In the case of concreting, work on the fastening of the fence begins no earlier than 3-5 days, so that the mortar is completely seized and solidified.
Fencing can very well be done with your own hands. The most popular in recent years are metal poles, with a chain link stretched between them, often fences from the profile are found. Low-grade wood fences are impractical. More complex structures with asbestos and brick supports are being built with the help of specialists.