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Mushrooms are popular in our country mushrooms, abundant fruiting of which occurs in the second half of summer. It was then that fruit bodies of different types of breasts appeared in large numbers.
What mushrooms can be collected
It is best to familiarize yourself in advance with the hallmarks of edible mushrooms, as well as their main, characteristic differences from inedible varieties and poisonous doubles. Especially appreciated
How to identify an edible mushroom
Not all fruiting bodies of mushrooms are equally beneficial. Some of them can not only cause severe poisoning, but also deadly. It is for this reason that it is necessary to be able to identify edible species from inedible or poisonous species. Fruit bodies related to conditionally edible can be safely used for food purposes, but only after carrying out a mandatory and sufficient cooking time.
All conditionally edible mushrooms should be boiled for at least half an hour, and then washed in hot water. Thus, it is possible to get rid of harmful substances that may be in the mushroom pulp. Edible mushrooms can be identified in the process of visual inspection, knowing the main distinguishing characteristics of such species.
The appearance and quality of edible mushrooms
All breasts belong to the category of milkers, therefore, a characteristic feature of such lamellar mushrooms is the allocation of milky juice, which has a different color, on the cut. It should be noted, that the intensity of selection and color change directly depend on the species characteristics of the breasts.
Mushroom places to avoid
Firstly, it is imperative to avoid heavily densely forested or very impenetrable forest areas. It is best to give preference to conifers or mixed forests. The soil at the mushroom picking site should not be too wet or too swampy.
Also need to rememberthat a dense grass stand does not contribute at all to the growth and development of fruiting bodies, so picking mushrooms in partially shaded glades will be optimal. It is important to note that it is strictly forbidden to collect fruiting bodies near major highways or megacities, near industrial facilities. Strongly overgrown, old or wormy mushrooms of any kind cannot be cut and used for food purposes.
How to search for mushrooms
Mushroom picking rules
All varieties of mushrooms always grow in large enough groups, which is due to their unusual name, derived from the Church Slavonic word "Georgia" or a bunch. Productivity of loaves is constantly changing. Fruit bodies rarely grow in the same place every year. To fans of "silent hunting" It is recommended to search for crops in sufficiently warm and humid areas., considering the following simple rules when collecting:
- the collection should be sent in the early morning hours;
- abundant fruiting is observed after sufficiently long and heavy rains;
- for lovers it is best to go to deep forests located far from sources of pollution;
- you can not cut, try or collect home unknown species, even if their appearance is attractive;
- it is impossible to collect overripe or wormy fruiting bodies that begin to decompose and accumulate toxins in their pulp;
- for picking mushrooms, wicker baskets with good ventilation are ideal, but you can also use shallow buckets made of food-grade plastic;
- to prevent the destruction of the mycelium, it is necessary to cut the leg with a sharp knife or carefully twist it out of the mycelium;
- it is advisable to go to the harvest only in well-known places, even with the ability to easily navigate in forest areas.
The entire harvest of fruiting bodies must be subjected to a very thorough inspection before cooking. Mushrooms are subject to preliminary heat treatment, but the resulting mushroom broth is not used for food purposes.
What time of year do mushrooms pick in Russia
Different species are mycorrhizal formers with different plants, and fruiting bodies can appear in waves or at the same time. For example, an edible red-brown lactum abundantly bears fruit from the beginning of August until the middle of October, in almost all European countries. An edible bitter lump grows from mid-summer to the last decade of September, and is popular among domestic mushroom pickers white lumps are most commonly found in deciduous forests and mixed forest zones, near birches, from the first of July to the last decade of September.
When and where do the first mushrooms begin to grow
The first mushrooms in the forests and in the open areas in our country appear with the onset of spring heat, immediately after the melting of the snow and sufficient heating of the soil. However, the peak of the fruiting period occurs in the second half of the summer.
What mushrooms grow in late autumn and winter
The most common white breasts in our country and some other varieties begin to grow closer to autumn. With the onset of the first autumn days, connoisseurs of "silent hunting" form fruiting bodies of many species. In late autumn, longer species than other species continue to grow actively and fairly abundantly bear fruit in such popular species as lilac lilac or lilac, which have a golden yellow hat and a black lump, better known as "chernushka". But, need to rememberthat mushrooms can suddenly stop growing under the influence of low temperature conditions and when the first snow falls.
Features of the collection of breasts
It is best to collect in the morning, on a cloudy day, after the rain. Cut fruit bodies should be stacked in a wicker basket so that sufficient space is maintained between them. Too close distribution often becomes the main cause of damage by relatively fragile mushroom pulp.
Where to collect mushrooms
Well-known are several types of valuable from the point of view of nutritional characteristics of the species of edible milk differ in their appearance:
- yellow breasts (Lact. Scrobisulatus) have hats with a diameter of 6.5-28 cm, yellow, brownish or yellowish-golden in color, sometimes with small scales. The shape of the cap in young mushrooms is slightly convex, straightened, or concavity with age. The top is smooth, sometimes mucous-sticky;
- white or raw milk (Lact. Piratus) differ in hats with a diameter of 6.5-25 cm, white or yellowish. The shape of the cap of the youngest fruiting bodies is flat, acquiring a funnel shape with age. The edges bent inward have a fairly well-marked fluff. The top is sticky and pronounced wet;
- bitter breasts (Las. Rufus) have caps with a diameter of 3.0-12 cm, brown or reddish in color, bell-shaped or straightened in shape, with a relatively small conical elevation in the central part. The top is smooth, with a slight pubescence, sometimes sticky and slippery;
- breasts reddish brown (Las. Volemus) are characterized by hats with a diameter of not more than 17.5-18.0 cm, with a matte, light brown surface, having a red or bright orange hue. Young mushrooms have a round, spreading hat, with a small, but quite noticeable impression.
Inedible varieties are represented by gray-pink and brown lactarias, sluggish lactarius, rubella, and camphor lactic.
When and where are the mushrooms collected
The very first, around July or August, there are real breasts that grow on the territory of pine-birch forests, mountain ranges, preferring sandy and sub-sandy soils. Mushrooms grow in large groups, sometimes hiding under rotten foliage, and yellow breasts are no exception in this regard.
Oak mushrooms are very common in areas of deciduous forests, and chernushka prefers birch or mixed forests. Despite the fact that chernushka and the pepper variety belong to the category of edible mushrooms, lovers of the “silent hunt” do not favor such varieties too much, which is due to the specific and not very pleasant taste of the mushroom taste. However, such fruiting bodies in recent years are increasingly used not only for food purposes, but also with medicinal properties.