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Those who have dealt with planting and growing roses are well aware that these flowers require constant care and attention. Only with an effort can you extend the flowering of the bush for many years. Caring for garden roses consists of many stages, each of them is very important and requires detailed consideration. In this article, you will learn not only how to care for roses, but also how you can plant them. This information will help you avoid mistakes and grow beautiful flowers.
Where to plant garden roses
These flowers are very fond of sunny colors, so it is better to plant them in well-lit areas. But do not plant roses in open areas, where the sun will illuminate the plants with direct rays all day. Lighting is the most important condition for the formation of young buds, but in the scorching sun, the flowers will fade very quickly. In this case, the color of the buds will not be so saturated, and the edges of the petals will curl up and dry out.
An area that is too shaded is also not suitable for growing roses. Without the sun, the plant will not be able to form new buds, and flowering will be weak. Due to the dampness, the bush will be susceptible to fungal diseases, which can completely destroy the flowers. Southeast areas are best suited, but north and northeast areas can have a detrimental effect on roses.
Advice! Choose places partially covered by trees or buildings from the north.
Do not plant a garden rose too close to other bushes or trees. Their strong roots will take up all moisture and create shade. Then long shoots will appear on the bushes, incapable of forming buds.
For good growth and flowering, roses should be planted in light loamy soil. It should be loose and rich in humus. Chernozem is also perfect for planting and caring for garden roses. Sandy and sandy soils are unsuitable for these flowers. Such soil tends to be very hot by the sun, and very quickly freeze in frost.
The roots of roses are very sensitive, and such changes in temperature can harm the plant. To improve the composition of such soil, peat, sod or rotted manure are introduced into it. Clay soils are also unsuitable for growing roses. Such soil is capable of absorbing a large amount of water, which can provoke the appearance of fungal diseases. To improve the soil, sand, humus, peat and compost are added to it.
Suitable soil temperature
Soil temperature has a strong influence on the growth and flowering of the bush. At temperatures between 15 ° C and 22 ° C, the rose will develop well and will delight you with abundant flowering. If it is above 25 ° C, the root system will overheat, which can have a bad effect on the plant as a whole. In this case, the soil around the bushes is mulched with peat, mowed grass or humus.
Attention! Temperatures below 15 ° C affect the ability of the root system to absorb nutrients. Because of this, the plant will weaken, and young shoots will be unable to form and develop buds.
Selection of seedlings
For the middle lane, grafted seedlings will be the best option, and not self-rooted. Such bushes have a more developed root system, high frost resistance, and take root well in a new place. They are also disease-resistant and capable of blooming a large number of roses at the same time. Caring for such bushes requires the removal of wild shoots growing from the root of the plant. A large amount of such growth can turn a rose into a rosehip. This transformation occurs due to the fact that the rose is most often grafted onto the root system of such bushes.
Important! Own-rooted seedlings do not require overgrowth removal.
When choosing seedlings, you should pay attention to the appearance of the root system. It can be open or closed with a peat ball. Open rhizomes can be damaged during transplantation and transportation. Therefore, it is better to buy closed seedlings. They are easier to transfer a transplant, and also more likely to grow, and, accordingly, bloom.
The foliage located on the bush requires special attention when choosing. Sluggish and dry foliage indicates the weakness of the bush. If there are only 3 or fewer shoots on the bush, then such a seedling is not worth buying. Shoots must be free of cracks and spots. If the root system is open, inspect it for damage. Broken roots with cracks and scratches will not be able to grow in a new place.
When to plant roses
Roses are planted in open ground both in autumn and spring. Remember at the same time that the bushes planted in the fall will have time to take root by the spring and bloom much faster than if you planted them in the spring. Therefore, the best time to plant bushes is autumn. You need to start planting no earlier than September so that young buds do not wake up before the onset of frost. And if you plant seedlings later than mid-October, there is a chance that the plant will not have time to take root and will simply freeze. With the correct planting time, the root system will have time to form young roots, and will harden before the onset of frost. Upon awakening in the spring, the rose will be full of strength and ready to form the ground part.
Important! Bushes planted in spring will begin to bloom half a month later than autumn ones.
Planting methods for garden roses
Before planting, it is necessary to clean the root system. All roots are shortened, leaving only 20 centimeters in length, and dry and damaged roots are cut off completely. Shoots should also be shortened, leaving only 3-5 buds on them. Planting seedlings is carried out by the following methods:
- dry method;
- wet way.
With a dry method of planting, a hole is dug about 30 cm deep and about 55 cm wide.Organic fertilizers (vermicompost, compost or humus), as well as mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are applied there. They are thoroughly mixed with soil and placed on the bottom of the hole.
The seedlings are placed in a hole so that the root collar is deepened into the ground by 3 centimeters. This will help the plant not dry out in hot weather, and will also allow it to quickly take root. Lowering the seedling into the hole, you need to carefully spread the root system along the bottom, and gradually cover it with soil, slightly compacting the soil. After the done, the bush is watered abundantly with water, and spud 20 cm up.
With the wet method, the hole is dug in the same way as with the dry one. Next, a bucket of water is poured into it, in which 1 tablet of heteroauxin is dissolved. A seedling is placed in the hole, and the prepared soil is poured directly into the water. Diluted with water, the soil completely fills the entire space between the roots, leaving no voids. From time to time, the seedling needs to be shaken and the soil compacted. Naturally, after this method of planting, it is not necessary to water the plant superficially. The next day, when the earth subsides a little, you will need to slightly raise the seedling and add soil. The landing site must be tamped. You need to spud the plant up to a height of 15 centimeters.
Post-planting care is the same in both cases. For the first weeks, the rose will need abundant watering. When the seedling is well rooted and grows, it needs to be undone, and the soil around it should be mulched with peat or straw.
Rose bushes care
To enhance flowering and facilitate plant care, a bush is formed in the first year of life. This process involves removing all young buds and pinching off the shoots above 4 or 5 leaves. Since rose bushes are different, the way they are formed may differ. To reduce the width of the spreading bushes. When forming, only the central shoots are left. A cut is made on the kidney directed inside the bush. On the other hand, in compressed bushes, side shoots should be left. This makes the plant more lush and voluminous.
Important! The rapidly growing shoots are pinched above 4 leaves. This is done so that new, symmetrically developed processes can form.
After creating the desired shape of the bush, the pinching of the roses is stopped. Now the plant needs a lot of strength to start blooming.
When to open roses in spring
It is very important to find the right time to remove the cover from the bush. Remember, if you open roses early, there is a risk of frost return and damage to young buds. And if, on the contrary, to do it too late, it will lead to damping.
No one can say the exact date when to shoot the shelter. This time may differ in each region. The main thing is to monitor the thawing of the soil. If the night frosts are not strong, and the soil around the bush has thawed to a depth of about 20 centimeters, then the shelter can be safely removed. Some gardeners remove the shelter from the bush gradually, hardening the plant and accustoming it to temperature changes.
How roses are pruned
Without removing old and dry shoots, it is impossible to grow healthy bushes. Pruning garden roses stimulates the formation of new shoots and helps create an attractive bush shape. All that is needed to carry out the pruning is a pruner. You need to cut dry shoots from a bush half a centimeter above a healthy bud. Pruning is carried out in spring, summer and autumn.
The first pruning is done in the spring, immediately after the rose has been removed from the shelter. At this time, the growth of branches begins, so it is impossible to hesitate with pruning. Summer pruning is designed to remove dried flowers and “blind” damaged shoots from the plant. Also, if the bush is grafted, you need to remove the wild growth.
Important! When cutting off dry buds from a bush, cut between 2 and 3 leaves from the flower.
It is advisable to cut off wild growth from the bush as soon as it appears. To do this, you need to slightly break the soil near the root and cut off the shoots at the very base. After that, the earth needs to be filled back and slightly compacted. By cutting off the shoots at ground level, you can achieve the opposite result, the shoots will grow even more.
In autumn, pruning is carried out in order to remove too long shoots, dry buds and emerging fruits.
Pests and diseases
Caring for roses provides for the mandatory prevention of diseases, as well as the treatment of viruses and fungi that have arisen. In order to provide assistance to the plant on time, you need to conduct a thorough examination of the bushes from time to time for pests and signs of disease. By starting the fight on time, there is a high probability of saving the plant.
For prevention, you can use the following methods:
- you can plant a plant with a pungent smell near the roses, which will scare off pests. Ornamental onions and sage are well suited for these purposes;
- periodically water the bushes with infusions of garlic, onions, calendula;
- leaves affected by black spot should be immediately plucked from the bush and burned so that the fungus does not spread to other plants;
- from mid-July it would be good to start sprinkling the bushes with ash;
- don't plant roses too thick. This can lead to fungal infection.
Everyone can care for and grow garden roses. When you plant these flowers for the first time on your site, you will most likely want to purchase other varieties. With their help, you can create a real rose garden in your yard.