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Growing a peach orchard is not easy. Changeable weather, diseases and pests often leave gardeners without a crop. Peach curing is a lengthy process that takes a lot of effort. Therefore, to reduce the risk of disease, it is necessary to spray the peach in the spring and fall.
Peach processing goals in the spring
Peach is a capricious tree that needs proper care and regular preventive measures. To grow a healthy plant, it is necessary to fertilize and irrigate the land, to fight diseases in a timely manner. Experienced gardeners know how important spring cultivation is.
Processing the peach tree in the spring is necessary to destroy pests and fungi that winter in the bark and fallen leaves. Correctly carried out spring processing will save the tree from diseases and help preserve the harvest.
When to spray peach trees
Spring processing is carried out several times:
- to swelling of the kidneys;
- during the period of foliage;
- during and after flowering.
The most important peach treatment for diseases is to kidney swelling. The timing of prophylaxis in early spring depends on climatic conditions. The main requirement is that the air temperature should not be less than + 4 ° C. In warm regions, processing is carried out on the 20th of March, in regions with an unstable climate - at the end of April.
Prevention is carried out with a break of several days. For this, copper-containing fungicides and diesel oil emulsion are used.
Attention! Preparations with a nitrogen content cannot be used before bud break, as they will provoke the peach to come out of hibernation.
Spring processing is necessary for both adult and young peaches. This is due to the fact that the awakened fungi and pests stop growth and development, which leads to a decrease in yield.
- During the blooming of the foliage, spraying is carried out against curliness and scab. To do this, 0.4 kg of lime and 0.3 kg of copper sulfate are bred in a bucket of warm water.
- Bud treatment will improve immunity and will be an excellent prevention against many diseases, including powdery mildew and moniliosis.
- The last spring spraying is done after flowering. It is necessary for the fixing effect and saturation of the tree with nitrogen.
To protect the peach from fungal diseases, there are many drugs - fungicides. For the spring processing of peaches, proven preparations are used:
- copper-containing preparations - destroy fungal infections;
- urea - saturates the tree with nitrogen;
- diesel oil emulsion - covers the plant with a transparent film;
- folk remedies - lavender, garlic, tobacco.
Before processing, you must carefully read the instructions in order to know the dosage, timing and timing. To avoid the transfer of chemicals throughout the garden, prevention is carried out in calm weather, in the morning or evening.
The first treatment is carried out using a watering can with large holes. This will allow the chemical to penetrate microcracks and kill fungi and parasites. For maximum effect, experienced gardeners are advised to take complex measures: simultaneously spray the peach with fungicides and insecticides. Since insect pests are carriers of fungal diseases.
Important! It is impossible to use one drug for a long time, as it becomes quickly addictive.
Is it possible to spray a peach during the flowering period
During the flowering of the peach, 2 treatments are carried out: after the blooming of all the buds and after 2 weeks, when some of the petals are sprinkled. Both sprays are carried out in order to prevent fungal diseases and to increase immunity.
For this purpose, chemical preparations cannot be used, as they can harm pollinating insects. Exceptions are serious diseases or if more than ½ of the buds have died - use the drugs "Decis" or "Aktara". The harvest after processing will be insignificant or completely absent, but you should not be upset, since processing will save the peach from the disease and grow a healthy tree for the next season.
In order for a peach to bear fruit generously, you need to know common diseases, their photos and treatment. Timely assistance will help the peach recover faster and prevent the mushrooms from spreading over the site, infecting neighboring plantings.
Diseases of peach trees and their treatment
All diseases of the peach are conventionally divided into 3 groups: diseases of the leaf plate, trunk and fruit. Timely disease control is an important step towards a healthy, bountiful harvest.
Cytosporosis is a dangerous fungal disease that affects the layer between bark and wood. The first symptoms of the disease are the formation of dark brown spots on the bark and wilting of the tip of the shoot. The fungus infects the tree from above, infecting young shoots and stem branches. Once the fungus has spread to the trunk, the peach is in serious danger.
If you do not start timely treatment, you can lose a large number of fruit branches and jeopardize the yield and the future life of the tree.
When a disease is detected, all affected branches are shortened to a length of 0.8-1.5 m, and in case of severe infection, the entire skeletal branch is removed to healthy tissue. The place of the cut is covered with garden pitch. The cut branches are burned, since fungal spores are easily carried by the wind and can settle in neighboring plantings.
To get rid of the fungus, the peach is treated with 3% Bordeaux liquid (300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of lime are diluted in a bucket of water).
Moniliosis, fruit rot or monilial burn is a dangerous, common disease that appears on foliage, flowers, fruits and shoots. Peach disease begins to develop in early spring. If no help is provided, the fungus leads to drying out of flowers and ovaries, the death of young fruiting shoots. With summer infection, the stem branch may die. On fruits, the fungus appears in the form of dark spots, which quickly grow and penetrate inside. The peaches turn brown inside, dry out and fall off. If an infected peach comes in contact with a healthy one, it also becomes infected. A chain reaction occurs, and without treatment, all the peaches on the tree begin to rot and crumble.
Peach disease often occurs in cold and wet weather during the flowering period. The carriers of the disease are weevils and moths. In winter, the fungus is found in the affected branches and, upon the arrival of warm days, infects large branches with renewed vigor.
You can get rid of the fungus in 2 ways:
- The affected shoots are burned, and rejuvenating pruning is done in the fall.
- During flowering, the crown is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid or 90% copper oxychloride solution.
Important! Processing is carried out in 4 stages with a break of 20 days.
Leaf spot or curl appears in a wet, lingering spring, affecting primarily young foliage. Red spots appear on the leaves of the peach, and after a week the inside is covered with a gray bloom. The affected foliage turns black over time, becomes fragile, dries up and falls off. As a rule, the fungus infects young shoots, they acquire a yellow color, bend and dry out. If you do not start timely treatment, the peach will shed all the leaves, begin to dry, and the tree will die.
If a disease is detected in a timely manner, it is necessary to act immediately. All infected shoots are excised and burned. Next, the tree is treated with copper-containing preparations. Processing is carried out in 3 stages with an interval of 14 days.
The disease appears in the first half of May on the inner side of young foliage, then the fungus moves to the tops of the shoots and affects the fruits. Diseased peach leaves take the shape of a boat and crumble over time.
In the initial stage, the disease can be identified by a white coating, which can be easily removed with a finger. Without treatment, the leaf plate coarsens and becomes brown. If a disease has attacked a tree during fruiting, the fruit will crack and grow deformed. If you do not start treatment in a timely manner, a black bloom appears on the peaches, they rot and crumble.
The peak of the disease occurs in the middle of summer, during a period of sudden temperature changes. To preserve the tree, it is necessary to start treatment when the first signs appear. To do this, the affected shoots are removed, the fallen foliage is collected and burned, since spores of fungi are carried by the wind over long distances. The main treatment is to process the peach after flowering with Topaz or Topsin. Autumn and spring pruning of affected shoots is also effective.
Clasterosporium is a widespread fungal disease. Disease activity is observed 2 times a year. Primary infestation occurs in early spring, when overwintered spores begin to attack the peach with renewed vigor. When the optimal temperature and humidity regime is reached, the first signs of the disease begin to appear. Crimson spots appear on young foliage, which grow over time. Part of the leaf dies off, falls off, forming small holes on the leaf plate.
With a strong infection, spores affect the entire aerial part: leaves, shoots, flowers and fruits. Shoots are covered with brown spots with a black border. With the growth of the spot, the bark cracks and gum flow occurs from the affected area.
When the fruit is damaged, maroon spots form on them, which grow without treatment and acquire a wart shape. The upper part disappears, and gum begins to stand out from the ulcers.
Help consists in spring and autumn sanitary pruning and processing of the peach crown before and after flowering with fungicides.
Fighting peach diseases with folk remedies
The peach is often affected by various diseases, but in order to harvest a generous harvest, it is necessary to start fighting them in a timely manner. Many gardeners use folk remedies for this, they are effective, non-toxic, do not threaten pollinating insects.
One of the best remedies is lime mixed with clay. The solution has fungicidal properties and prevents the development of diseases. To prepare the drug, 90 g of slaked lime and 350 g of softened clay are diluted in a bucket of warm water. Stir everything thoroughly until a homogeneous solution is obtained. The prepared preparation is sprayed on the tree early in the morning or in the evening.
Advice! The prepared mixture cannot be used the next day, so the medicine is prepared on the day of spraying.
Treatment in this way improves the biological and physico-chemical characteristics of the peach, at the same time nourishing them with mineral elements.
How to spray peaches for prevention
So that the peach does not turn yellow and does not fall off the leaves, and the tree fructifies and develops well, you need to heed the advice of experienced gardeners:
- In the fall, before processing, they carry out sanitary pruning. Slices are covered with garden var, branches and leaves are removed and burned.
- In autumn and spring, the crown is sprayed with copper-containing preparations. The procedure is best done in calm, dry weather.
- Spraying is carried out in the morning after dew has melted.
- Spring treatment is done through a large spray so that the drug penetrates into all microcracks, where fungal spores often hibernate.
- The maximum effect is achieved by alternating fungicides with insecticides.
- Before starting treatment, it is necessary to check the reaction of the peach to the drug. To do this, a young branch with foliage is processed, and if after a day the leaves of the peach have not turned yellow, you can start processing the entire tree.
Diseases in a peach take a lot of energy, therefore, in order to help it recover faster, it is necessary to carry out a balanced mineral and organic nutrition. In the first season after the illness, it is important to regulate the yield, directing all forces to a quick recovery.
It will also be important to increase immunity and restore growth and development with the following drugs:
- phytoactivators ("Stimunol", "Albit");
- growth stimulants ("Epin", "Kornevin");
- immunomodulators ("Zircon", "Silk").
Spraying the peach in spring and autumn is necessary for the prevention of diseases. With regular events, the peach will reward you with good growth, development and a high yield.