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For a long time the art of stove-makers was seriously appreciated. It costs us dearly even now, because today the masters of their craft are laying not just stoves for heating, but also decorative, for cooking, universal ones. This case is quite complex and has many special requirements that govern the compliance of materials, sizes, the format of the smoke exhaust system and other factors in the construction of the furnace. But this does not mean that the simplest design can not be built with your own hands. Already now he will tell you how to save on the services of a stove-maker and literally next season to get saturated heat from a new brick stove.
Choose a place for construction
We decided to talk about the stove, which will be located inside the building. That is, this is not a standard barbecue in the garden or under a canopy, but a full-fledged stove with a heating and cooking mode.
First of all, we need to choose a convenient place for her. It doesn’t matter if the house will have a structure or in a temporary hut, it must be installed according to all fire safety requirements, but also necessarily and taking into account the most efficient room heating.
If the room is small, then you can install the oven even in the corner, as often happens, but it is worth remembering that with a large area, the area opposite will warm up badly. Especially if there are entrance doors in this place.
It is better to install the stove in the kitchen, which will be heated due to its work.
It is worth remembering that there should be a wall near the stove through which we will lead the chimney to the street. Well, or you should correctly calculate the output of smoke vertically up, if the landmark goes to a brick chimney.
No less important is the fact that the volumetric brick stove has a fairly large weight. Often they do not pay attention to this, and even lay on a thick wooden floor. But this is good only in the case of new lumber and high-quality finish of the base.
In other cases, it is much more correct to create a simple foundation for the construction.
A brick stove in a country house or in any other interior is installed on the foundation.
If there is a wooden floor at the installation site at the construction stage, it will need to be removed.
The foundation can be stone or concrete. A concrete platform is often poured, for which formwork is used, and so much easier, because you can completely lay out a full-fledged base of brick. If you decide to make a strip foundation, for example, for the sake of saving money, you won’t be able to reduce costs, because then you will need to drive out the base with a metal structure under the furnace, which will also pull money.
So, it will be most correct to fill the site with high-quality concrete. Concrete M 250 is enough, since the foundation indoors will not bear such a heavy load. After drying, pouring with reinforcement, you can proceed to the construction of the furnace.
The first row of bricks is laid on a waterproofing layer, which must be laid between the furnace and the foundation. To do this, use roofing material, which is less high quality, or special modern materials.
In masonry, it is very important to adhere to the technology. Previously, everything rested on clay and the simplest solutions, coatings and sand, but now it is recommended to use heat-resistant and more durable materials, which will extend the operating life and make the construction process more convenient.
After laying the waterproofing - the first layer of brick. It is advisable to immediately lay the fireclay brick, since it practically does not react to the temperature in this part. Below we will have an ash compartment, where there will be no burning and high temperatures.
After the first row, a double blower door is installed, which is mounted on a steel wire by the usual tension on the far parts of the stove. You can also start using studs or welded metal structures.
The second row of bricks is laid taking into account the area of the ash chamber, on the bottom of which it would be better to lay a sheet of high-quality steel with a thickness of 2-3 mm. This will make it much easier to collect waste from the ash pan in the future.
After the third row of bricks, we proceed to the installation of the internal metal frame. Often the height of the ash chamber is independently regulated, depending on the initial plan of the furnace and its own requirements, but often it is measured simply by the height of the door of this compartment, plying on top of 1-2 rows of bricks.
The middle part of the furnace is considered the most difficult, but if you can work well with dimensions and power tools, then everything is much simpler than it seems.
It is here that a combustion chamber, the so-called combustion chamber, is formed, where firewood and coal generate heat by burning for heating a house. Therefore, at this stage it is worth being the most careful.
In the middle part of the stove, where the ash chamber is in contact with the furnace through the grates, a metal frame is installed. But it is not a mandatory part if you can make grooves in the masonry.
Set the markings on a number of masonry in those places where the grate will be installed, and just cut the grooves with a grinder. It is very simple, you just need to make the angle on the bricks inverse to form a cavity, exactly repeating the size of the accessory.
After installing the grates, we lay two more rows of bricks until the moment the formation of the rear compartment for the chimney is started.
Here you need to accurately calculate absolutely everything, because the chamber for burning fuel in a country furnace depends on the subsequent masonry, and it can be large or small.
Most often, the furnace chamber is only 3-4 bricks high, this is enough for the average laying of firewood, and for burning coal.
Cast iron plate installation
Each reader of the site perfectly understands what a work plan, scheme and project is. Therefore, no one will be surprised that the furnace is not just built by laying solid bricks, thereby forming the size of the entire structure and its individual chambers. The dimensions are initially set, and only then does the masonry begin. But there is one more secret here, because the hob, that is, the cast-iron stove for a brick oven, is selected before the start of construction, and dimensions are already set for it. Their parameters are very diverse, and therefore you will not have to adapt especially.
When the work is almost finished, a groove is made in the upper row of the brick, it is cut through by the grinder, as at the installation stage of the grate. A metal corner is installed in this groove, which is welded in the shape of a rectangle that exactly repeats the dimensions of a cast-iron plate. The mold is installed on the same heat-resistant solution with which the entire masonry was made.
When the solution dries, you can install a cast-iron stove with circles on top, on the surface of which in the future it will be possible to cook a lot of delicious dishes.
Brick kiln decor
The construction of fireclay bricks is not the prettiest, and therefore we recommend that you carry out the exterior decoration, which will help fit the stove into the design, making it a full-fledged part of the interior.
To do this, you will need to use a facing brick. It is impossible to build from it, since it can withstand temperatures of as little as 650 ° C, while fireclay bricks for the furnace are all 1200 ° C without receiving any damage. It is also worth remembering that the temperature inside the furnace can be very diverse, from 700-900 ° С when the tree burns, and up to 1100-1200 ° С when burning coal.
In order for the refractory brick not to transmit the maximum temperature to the external decorative clinker and that it would not collapse under such influence, it is necessary to install a layer of heat-insulating material. Here, a simple film that is used for warming houses or other structures will not work, but basalt cardboard will fit exactly, the thickness of which should be at least 5 mm.
After that, you can proceed to the laying of facing bricks. Then try to make the stove really beautiful.
Let's discover a little secret! Work with the clinker is often greatly delayed, as the craftsmen are afraid to stain the front part of the material with a solution. But there is a great idea - you can just stick the front part with masking tape and build without any problems. After laying the last brick, just remove the masking tape and you will get a clean and quickly built stove.
DIY brick oven (video)
On our site there is an interesting and fairly detailed material that tells about a variety of chimneys, their purpose, qualities, characteristics and advantages. Therefore, we recommend reading the article. But while you are reading this section of the current article, we draw your attention to the following ...
The chimney for a wood stove (which can sometimes be heated with coal) is offered in several types. Ceramic, like Shidel, we propose to immediately discard, as this is a very expensive option. Then we will have two of the most suitable chimneys - a steel sandwich and a standard brick. It is about them that it is worth reading in the article recommended earlier.
In the meantime, we point out that a steel chimney will be much cheaper, and it will take quite a little time to install it. You will spend your energy, time and considerable money on brick, but you will get much more serious quality. Moreover, with it the stove will work for heating much more efficiently.
Brick stove chimney installation
The design of the furnace involves the installation of a chimney, without it, work is simply impossible. The chimney can be installed at the rear of the structure or on its far part from above. In principle, the output itself is mounted very simply, but at the masonry stage.
A steel chimney can be installed in the furnace, which will serve enough at its cost. It can be single-walled or double-walled with a heat insulator, that is, a sandwich chimney. Often, it is displayed immediately on the street and already there it goes vertically upwards on the clamps mounted on the wall.
The brick chimney is much more complicated, since it is also the heating part inside the room.
Hot smoke passing through a brick chimney heats it, due to which the whole system gives off more heat, and even after the fuel has been laid, it does not cool down for a long time.
A brick chimney can be simple, with several strokes of the heat flux, for connecting two furnaces at once, or a coarse chimney that provides heat to the entire house at once. If you decide to build a simple vertical brick chimney, it can be done through the ceiling and roof, which is quite simple. But if you choose a complex system, we recommend that you seek the help of specialists.
The construction of the stove and chimney is an interesting topic, but requires accurate calculations. Therefore, you always have the exact project, tape measure, pencil, sheet of paper for notes and notes, a guide to the assembly of the structure, as well as a plumb line and level!
Cleaning and maintenance
Each furnace, which is heated by wood, coal or other solid fuels, precipitates a lot of combustion products on the walls of the chimney. This is soot, which accumulates for a very long time, as well as oils that do not allow soot to fall down. Therefore, cleaning the chimney and stove is required, but we already talked about this in a special article on this topic. Do not forget about prevention, and the system will work efficiently due to a clean chimney and excellent traction!
It is also very important to clean individual parts of the flue system if the chimney is of complex construction. You need to open the views, for which soot is also collected.
Tips from professional stove makers
Having decided to build a brick oven in the country with your own hands, you need to adhere to not only strict technology in the masonry and installation of the smoke exhaust system, but also the opinions of professional stove-makers who are happy to share their recommendations.
We have put together some of the most important building and decoration tips that are sure to come in handy:
- You should not buy expensive finishing materials, because, having paid a little time and attention to details, they can always be done independently using an angle grinder;
- Be sure to choose high-quality material for masonry, avoiding savings on used brick;
- To install passes and jumpers, a metal frame is often used, which in furnaces is inappropriate for various reasons. Then you can find another solution - apply through studs through the desired number of blocks, between which there must be a masonry mortar;
- The thinner the seam in the masonry, the less chance of cracking during temperature exposure. Therefore, it is important to observe a seam of only 5-6 mm;
- Be sure to use refractory and heat-resistant materials, which will increase the life of the furnace;
- Pay attention to safety! The masonry place must be finished with non-combustible materials - stone, metal, ceramic tile;
- To install a strictly vertical chimney, the vertical level is not always used. It is easier to work with correctly stretched thread, which initially follows the plumb line or laser level;
- Follow all the requirements of the work plan and drawing - dimensions, angles, levels, number of bricks, wall thickness, etc.
- Avoid gaps in the seams. This is simply achieved by pressure on the brick in the masonry when the mortar leaves the seam. It can be easily removed with a trowel;
- Do not narrow the chimney, do not install excess decor, do not take any actions that adversely affect the chimney draft;
- Do not bring your own ideas into the design. It is simply impossible to invent a bicycle here again, because there are certain rules and technologies;
- If you are restoring a stove, do not break it immediately. Sometimes high-quality repairs are much simpler and better than building from scratch;
- Never touch the masonry if you are not sure that you can perform it efficiently and safely.
Masonry bricklaying in the country with your own hands is a very real process, but only if you understand the technology and follow the rules. Carefully study each item of the project and only then get to work!